This is the first half of an article setting out what the author says are the tax and value-building qualities of life insurance in the various forms in which it operates in the US.
As FWR readers know, lawmakers in Washington DC are pushing for tax hikes on capital gains, estate and income taxes, among others. Whatever the rights and wrongs of these measures, tax-mitigation is at the top of the wealth management agenda. In this detailed article, the author examines the life insurance toolbox.
The writer is Andreas Stuermann, president of Stuermann Consulting, a firm which specializes in designing, implementing and administering life insurance solutions for individual and institutional clients.
The second half of this article will be published later this week.
The editors of this publication are pleased to share these views. The usual editorial disclaimers apply. To jump into the debate, email firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
When surveying affluent families and highly compensated executives and entrepreneurs about what keeps them up at night with regards to their finances, recurring themes include taxes, market volatility, balancing risk and return, maintaining adequate liquidity and protecting their assets. This article examines how cash value life insurance can be a helpful tool in the toolbox for big picture wealth planning, while living and at death.
Tax increases are on the horizon and will likely have a negative impact on the ability to sustain savings levels and meet long-term financial goals. This will lead Americans, who already face intensified pressure to save due to increased longevity, to taking more investment risk in order to meet their goals. Among the proposed tax policies in President Biden’s American Families Plan and Senator Bernie Sanders 99.5 per cent Plan are: (1)
• Increasing the top ordinary income tax rate on income over
$400,000 from 37 per cent to 39.6 per cent and adding a 12.4 per
cent Social Security payroll tax, split between the employee and
employer, for wages over $400,000.
• Moving the long-term capital gains tax rate from 20 per cent to 39.6 per cent plus the 3.8 per cent Net Investment Income Tax for taxpayers with more than $1 million in income.
• Eliminating the step-up in basis of property inherited at death and replacing it with a carry-over basis after allowing individuals to exclude $1 million in unrealized capital gains from this tax.
• Reduce the estate tax exemption amount to $3,500,000, minus past reportable gifts (a steep decrease from the current 2021 exemption amount of $11,700,000 per person).
• Limit the gift tax exemption to $1 million (currently at $11,700,000, minus any past gifts made above the annual exemption amount, currently at $15,000 per donee).
• Create progressive estate tax rates, including a top rate of 65 per cent on estates of more than $1 billion (currently a flat 40 per cent rate).
In addition to these federal tax increases, the average top state capital gains rate is roughly 5.2 per cent. In total, the combined federal and average state tax rate on capital gains for wealthy individuals would be 48.6 per cent under the President’s plan. (2)
These tax proposals are on the heels of the changes brought about by the SECURE Act. Passed in late 2020, the SECURE Act removes the ability to “stretch” IRA and 401(k) account balances across the lifespans of most beneficiaries. Distributions must be taken faster, leading to accelerated taxes and the push into a higher income tax bracket for many account holders.
More attention will therefore be given to making tax-driven
choices about where capital is deployed. Tax diversification can
be divided into three categories:
1. Taxed Today – stocks, bonds, real estate, private equity, alternatives, ETFs;
2. Taxed Later – annuities, qualified plans, traditional IRAs; and
3. Taxed Never – municipal bonds, Roth IRAs, cash value life insurance.
Every long-term investment strategy has three phases: depository; accumulation; and distribution. The depository phase is usually the smallest and the distribution phase usually the largest, making never-taxed assets increasingly appealing in our rising tax environment.
INSERT GRAPHIC – “Tax Buckets”
Affluent individuals face unique challenges when segmenting asset classes where all tax-advantaged asset classes are either unavailable to them or have limited value in their portfolio. For instance, qualifying for a Roth IRA is extremely unlikely and the funding limits of qualified plans restrict the percentage of wealth which can be allocated.
Conversely, these individuals commonly have more allocations to highly tax-inefficient and illiquid investments like private equity, hedge funds and real estate. More and more, the wealthy are turning to “Tax Never” cash value life insurance to balance their tax diversification strategy and to tax-efficiently save and build wealth.
Recent tax law changes under IRC §7702 have further increased the limits that can be invested into cash value life insurance and high net worth and highly compensated individuals are re-discovering what has been constant for nearly four decades - cash value life insurance possesses unique tax benefits which can be positioned both as a contingent asset class to balance risk and return in a portfolio and as an effective tool for tax diversification.
“Potential legislation pertaining to a number of tax increases
bodes well for the use of life insurance to mitigate the impact
of some of those increases,” says Frazer Rice, the Northeast
regional director for Pendleton Square Trust Company. Rice, whose
clients include high net worth individuals and families, views
life insurance as a solution to address a number of matters. “It
is a tool that is useful for tax-advantaged accumulation and for
tax-advantaged access to capital. Also, from an asset class
perspective, it provides the owner with a stable and
comparatively low-risk, fixed income-type of investment.”